Albert Bierstadt (January 7, 1830 - February 18, 1902) was a German-American painter best known for his large landscapes of the American West. In obtaining the subject matter for these works, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. Though not the first artist to record these sites, Bierstadt was the foremost painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century.
Bierstadt was part of the Hudson River School, not an institution but rather an informal group of like-minded painters. The Hudson River School style involved carefully detailed paintings with romantic, almost glowing lighting, sometimes called luminism.
Bierstadt was born in Solingen, Germany. His family moved to New Bedford, Massachusetts, in 1833. He studied painting with the members of the Düsseldorf School in Düsseldorf, Germany from 1853 to 1857. He taught drawing and painting briefly before devoting himself to painting.
Bierstadt began making paintings in New England and upstate New York. In 1859, he traveled westward in the company of a Land Surveyor for the U.S. government, returning with sketches that would result in numerous finished paintings. In 1863 he returned West again, in the company of the author Fitz Hugh Ludlow, whose wife he would later marry. He continued to visit the American West throughout his career.
Though his paintings sold for princely sums, Bierstadt was not held in particularly high esteem by critics of his day. His use of uncommonly large canvases was thought to be an egotistical indulgence, as his paintings would invariably dwarf those of his contemporaries when they were displayed together. The romanticism evident in his choices of subject and in his use of light was felt to be excessive by contemporary critics. His paintings emphasized atmospheric elements like fog, clouds and mist to accentuate and complement the feel of his work. Bierstadt sometimes changed details of the landscape to inspire awe. The colors he used are also not always true. He painted what he believed is the way things should be: water is ultramarine, vegetation is lush and green, etc. The shift from foreground to background was very dramatic and there was almost no middle distance.
Nonetheless, his paintings remain popular. He was a prolific artist, having completed over 500  (possibly as many as 4000) paintings during his lifetime, most of which have survived. Many are scattered through museums around the United States. Prints are available commercially for many. Original paintings themselves do occasionally come up for sale, at ever increasing prices.
 Existing Work
- Oregon Trail, 1869 at the Butler Institute of American Art
- Puget Sound on the Pacific Coast, 1870 at the Seattle Art Museum
- The Wolf River, Kansas at the Detroit Institute of Arts
- several pieces at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
- Alaskan Coast Range, ca. 1889 at the Smithsonian American Art Museum
- Among the Sierra Nevada, California, 1868 at the Smithsonian American Art Museum
- Domes of Yosemite ca. 1871 at the St. Johnsbury Athenaeum, St. Johnsbury, Vermont
- Cathedral Rocks, Yosemite Valley, ca. 1872 at the Smithsonian American Art Museum
- Gates of the Yosemite, ca. 1882 at the Smithsonian American Art Museum
- Indians in Council, California, ca. 1872 at the Smithsonian American Art Museum
- San Francisco Bay, 1871-1873 at the Smithsonian American Art Museum
- The Rocky Mountains at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City
- Sunrise in the Sierras, ca. 1872 at the Smithsonian American Art Museum
- Sierra Nevada Morning at the Gilcrease Museum